Archive for Ritalin

Methylphenidate Shortage in Canada

methylphenidate 300x200 Methylphenidate Shortage in CanadaMarch 12, 2014

There has been a recent shortage of the short acting Methylphenidate medication in Canada. This is listed on the website (and you can visit that site to check if the shortage is still an issue).

Methylphenidate is a stimulant medication used to treat ADHD. It is the active ingredient in the following medications: Ritalin, Ritalin SR, Biphentin and Concerta. However, the only form of this medication which is impacted by the shortage is the short acting version. Specifically, the 10 mg tablets, and the 20 mg tablets.

This shortage does not impact the availability of the long acting versions of methylphenidate such as Biphentin and Concerta.

Although it’s generally recommended that the long acting medications (such as Concerta and Biphentin) should be used to treat ADHD, as they work better for individuals with ADHD, there are still occassions that doctors will use a short acting stimulant medication.

These could include:

  • Using a long acting methylphenidate medication in the morning and then taking a short acting in the evening when it has been a particularly long day (i.e. topping up the medication for night school)
  • When a teen sleeps in on the weekend and gets up too late to take a long acting medication, they may take a short acting mid-day on the weekend to have some stimulant treatment
  • There are some patients (in my experience this is very few) who don’t do as well with a long acting medication as they do with a short acting version

If you or your child is taking a short acting version of Methylphenidate, you may have a hard time refilling the prescription. The pharmacist will likely tell you that the product is ‘back ordered’. However, if the pharmacy still has stock on their shelves, then you should be able to fill the prescription.

Here’s what you can do if you are stuck and cannot refill your prescription for methylphenidate:

  1. Ask the pharmacist to call other pharmacies to see if they have stock on their shelves (i.e. they will be able to call other pharmacies in their ‘chain’ (such as Shopper’s Drug Mart) and if another pharmacy has stock, they may be able to get it for you)
  2. Phone other local pharmacies and see if they have stock on their shelves, and then take your prescription to that pharmacy (you would have to take an actual prescription, as pharmacies cannot transfer prescriptions for methylphenidate from one pharmacy to another).
  3. Check if your pharmacy can order in the 5 mg tablet of Methylphenidate. If they are able to, contact your doctor’s office and explain that you need the doctor to change the prescription to the 5 mg tablets because of the medication shortage.

If none of these strategies work, then be sure to see if you can take either of Biphentin, Concerta, or even Ritalin SR to see if they can help you. Alternatively, you may benefit from a trial of an amphetamine medication – such as Vyvanse, Adderall XR, or Dexedrine. That would be an issue you’ll have to discuss with your doctor.

Please share any experiences you’ve had – particularly if you have a strategy which could be helpful to others.


Dr. Kenny

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Shortage of Ritalin and Adderall

It is just being reported (in April 2011) that in the United States, there is a shortage of supply for the medications Ritalin (methylphenidate) and Adderall (mixed amphetamine salts). This may mean that your pharmacy has trouble getting the medication into the pharmacy for you to pick up your prescription.

You can read more about it here.

Has this impacted you? What have you been able to do about it?


Dr. Kenny

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Concerta and Ritalin: Can they be Combined?

I recently posted a blog post about Ritalin. Although it often ‘gets a bad rap’, it’s a medication which can still be very helpful for ADD/ADHD. Of course, the newer medicines (which are long acting) seem to be better for a good treatment response, though Ritalin can still play a role.
In that article, I mentioned the concept of taking Ritalin with Concerta – i.e. together. When someone commented on that post, I realized that I should share more specifics and details about how this can be done safely and effectively.

For background information, you can reference these previous blog posts about Ritalin and Concerta:

The Concept Behind Concerta’s Formulation:

Concerta, as the first long acting ADHD medication, was developed using a fascinating approach. The scientists put kids with ADHD into an ‘analogue classroom’ – meaning a research environment which simulates a school classroom. So, children were given tasks which would occur in a regular school day, and they were monitored by experts in  ADHD. These kids were given an IV line, which allowed for the researchers to draw blood HOURLY, so they could establish the blood levels of the medication throughout the day – and they could correlate the blood levels of the medication to the behavior (and ADHD symptoms) observed throughout the day.

The researchers tried different approaches with the medication. The children were given short acting Methylphenidate (i.e. the medicine in Ritalin). By giving different amounts of medicine on a very frequent basis, they were able to create different levels of blood concentration through the day.This was called a ‘sipping study’. They were giving little bits of Ritalin throughout the day, very frequently – like you would ‘sip’ a soda. By monitoring the blood levels, they created different ‘profiles’ of blood concentration.

The first concentration approach was: FLAT. This meant that the medicine was given to reach a ‘plateau’ level of blood concentration, and the rest of the doses throughout the day were set up to maintain that level of concentration in the blood.

The second concentration approach was: ASCENDING. This meant that the doses were set up to increase the blood concentration slightly, hour by hour throughout the day.

The third concentration approach was: DESCENDING. This meant that the doses were given to create an initial spike up, and then the blood concentration would drop through the course of the day.

Guess which concentration approach was proven to be most helpful in controlling symptoms of ADHD through the course of the day?

ASCENDING worked best.

Thus, Concerta was developed to create an ascending profile of blood concentration throughout the day. This means that when the 22% of immediate release methylphenidate is absorbed, it creates a spike in blood concentration in the first hour, and then the Concerta is formulated to increase the concentration of methylphenidate in the blood, so that hour by hour, there is more medicine in the system. The concentration level increases for the first approximately 8 hours of the day, and then it begins its drop. It thus gives approximately 12 hours of symptom control.

Why does an ascending profile seem to work well?

The researchers suggested that there is ‘acute tachyphylaxis’, or ‘acute tolerance’. They suggest that if the blood level of the medication is the same at 11 am as it was at 10 am, the brain is becoming tolerant to that level of medicine that quickly, and it is less effective at 11 am as it was at 10 am. Concerta was formulated to overcome this, by having slightly higher concentrations of medicine throughout the day. Under the theory of acute tachyphylaxis, the system of ‘tolerance’ to the medication would reset itself each night, as the medicine wears out of the system.

Back to combining Concerta with Ritalin:

Explaining the science of Concerta was important to explain the rationale for what I’ll say next about combining Ritalin (or short acting Methylphenidate) with Concerta.

It is important, because if the ‘ascending profile’ theory is correct – then adding Ritalin to Concerta first thing in the morning will ruin the unique formulation of Concerta, and essentially ruin the ascending profile of concentration.
In other words – if Concerta is formulated so that a certain amount of it is immediate release (i.e. 22%), then the rest of the pill supports that to create the ascending profile. If one takes a short acting Ritalin with the Concerta in the morning – then the ascending concentration profile in the blood becomes a descending profile, because the initial spike will be so big, that it would throw off the concentration profile for the rest of the day.

So, the ‘Concerta purists’ (if you could call them that) would say that you should never add regular Ritalin to Concerta first thing in the morning. If someone isn’t getting a strong enough response first thing in the morning, then they need a higher dose of Concerta.

These ‘Concerta purists’ would be fine with adding regular Ritalin to Concerta at the end of the day – if a little ‘bump’ is needed to make the medicine last longer. For example – if the Concerta lasts for 12 hours, but on certain nights, night school classes are taken, adding a 10 mg Ritalin tablet at the end of the day on those nights would be completely reasonable.

So Why Do Some Doctors Add Ritalin To Concerta In the Morning?

Despite what the researchers may say, and what studies may show in those circumstances, each person is an individual, and people have different responses to medication.

In my years of clinical experience, do I believe the ‘ascending profile’ story of Concerta to be 100% true and accurate for everyone?  No – I don’t. I have seen people for whom Concerta was a miracle medicine, and I have seen people for whom Concerta didn’t work at all. I have certainly (and regularly) seen people who add Ritalin to Concerta at the end of the day.

Concerta and Ritalin together in the morning? Not generally my practice, though I have colleagues who have done this with reported success.

The most important point for YOU:

Your treatment needs to be individualized.

I hope that you can discuss with your doctor the strategies which may help you to optimize your medication treatment for ADHD. Heck – if you’re going to take medication for ADHD, you want it to work the best it can, right?
Combining Ritalin and Concerta may just be an ‘advanced strategy’ for managing your medications that will help you and your doctor to find the right treatment.

A final point about safety: When combining Concerta and Ritalin, remember that these are the same medication, and that higher doses of methylphenidate can cause more side effects, particularly cardiovascular ones – i.e. increase blood pressure, or increase heart rate. Be sure to talk to your doctor about the ‘total daily dose’ to make sure that it is safe for you.

Please share your experiences and thoughts below.

All the best,

Dr. Kenny

p.s. I have just put together a new video on how to use ADHD Medications both safely and effectively. You can get access to that video by visiting here.

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Metadate CD for ADHD

A prescription medication to treat ADD/ADHD, Metadate CD, is variety of the stimulant methylphenidate extended-release. In this specific instance Metadata CD is designed to release one third of its medication upon initial usage. The other 70 percent is then released throughout your system slowly. This allows for only a once daily dosage.

Metadate CD is manufactured in the form of a capsule. Inside this capsule are very small beads, a percentage of which are created to dissolve at a certain rate once you take them. Because of these beads, it’s not recommended that you either chew or crush this medication.

You may, however, if you have difficulty swallowing pills, open the capsules and sprinkle the beads on a spoonful of applesauce. But, you need to take the medication immediately after it has been open. And you should avoid chewing the spoonful of applesauce. Be sure also to follow this with a drink of water or other beverage.

It’s best to take Metadate CD before breakfast. Taking it following your meal can actually delay the effect of the medication.

Metadate CD has a duration of action of about 8 hours. It’s available in six capsule strengths. They include 10 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg, 40 mg, 50 mg, or 60 mg.

The exact dosage your doctor prescribes for you depends in large part on your age, any other medications you’ve tried in the past for you ADD/ADHD problems. Your dosage also reflects your age, as well as any other medical disorders you may currently have and any other medications you’re presently taking.

Metadate CD Side Effects

Every prescription drug on the market contains some risk. Metadate CD is no different. Side effects of this drug may include high blood pressure, to name just one problem. For the most part, people on this drug have discovered the increase in blood pressure is only temporary and usually goes back within a healthy range on its own.

The most common side effects are a decreased appetite and insomnia.

If you or your child is prone to seizures, be sure to speak to your doctor about your ability to take this drug. This medication may increase your chances of having seizures.

Other side effects include stomach pain as well as headaches, loss of and inability to sleep as well as burred or other vision problems.

If your child is taking this medication, it may also be responsible for severe and persistent dizziness, as well as chest pain, or an irregular heart beat.

You and your personal physician are best able to make the decision if this medication is right for your particular situation and condition.

Has Metadate CD worked well for you or your child? Please share your thoughts, comments and experiences below.

Dr. Kenny

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Ritalin LA: Update to Ritalin

Ritalin LA, a version of the original methylphenidate with the similar brand name is also a stimulant medicine. The difference between Ritalin LA and Ritalin is that the LA version is a sustained release medication.

Taken by mouth only once a day, it’s best given at breakfast. This capsule should be swallowed whole. Don’t crush or chew its contents, because you may be destroying the long-lasting aspect of the drug. Either crushing or chewing may also increase the risk of developing adverse side effects.

If you or your child has problems swallowing medication, you can, however, (depending on the specific brand you purchase), open the capsule and sprinkle the contents into applesauce. Before you do this, consult with your pharmacist to make sure you have the proper variety of drug.

More than likely, your physician will start you out on a dosage of 20 mg daily. If you previously had been using another methylpenidate medication, then your doctor will probably have you begin with the same total dosage as your previous prescription.

But keep in mind the specific dose of Ritalin LA, your health care provider prescribes actually depends on a number of factors, including your age, any other medication you may currently be taking, as well as other ADD/ADHD medications you’ve tried in the past.

Your physician may adjust your dosage in increments of 10 mg up to a maximum of 60 mg daily. Of course, just how long this drug lasts in your system depends on your circumstances, but it was designed to last about 8 hours.

Be patient. You may not notice any change in behavior in the first two weeks of use. According to some medical experts, that’s how long it may be before Ritalin LA takes effect in your system.

Ritalin LA Side Effects

When you take Ritalin LA, you should be aware of the side effects, which are quite similar (not surprisingly) to other Ritalin medications. Some individuals for example, have complained of stomach problems, loss of appetite as well as nausea while on the medications.

Other side effects including difficulty in sleeping, dizziness, lightheadedness as well as dry mouth. But that’s not all, in some cases side effects, such as blurred vision, irritability and nervousness have also arisen. And in a few cases, people have even complained of constipation or drowsiness. If you experience any of these conditions while on Ritalin LA, you should notify your doctor immediately.

Ritalin LA is extremely convenient for those who have trouble remembering to take up to three pills daily. And, like other long lasting medications, children don’t have the embarrassment or the hassle of visiting the school nurse in the middle of the day in order to take their necessary medication.

How has Ritalin LA worked for you? Please share your comments and experiences below in the comments section.

Dr. Kenny

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Focalin XR: Medicine for ADHD

Focalin xr

Focalin XR is a relatively new ADD/ADHD medication. Its chemical name is dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride. This long-acting version of Focalin can be used to treat not only children, but teens and adults as well.

Each capsule of this medication, like so several other attention deficit drugs, is filled with beads in a precise ratio set to release the drug at specific intervals. In the case of Focalin XR, half of one capsule (regardless of the dosage) is filled with beads designed to release immediately. The other half of the beads is enteric-coated, delayed-release set to provide another dose of the medication at a later time.

Your physician can prescribe this version of the drug in different strengths: 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 mg capsules. One of the assets to these increments of 5 mg is that adjustments in medications can be more finely tuned.

Some doctors have prescribed daily doses as high as 30 to 40 mg. To give you an idea of the strength of the dosage, compare it to that of Concerta. If these were “translated” into an equivalent dosage of Concerta, for example, it would be somewhere between 54 and 72 mg.

This longer-acting version of Focalin lasts about 8 hours in the body compared to the 5 hours of regular Focalin. The latest studies reveal that it’s approximately 70 percent effective in alleviating ADD/ADHD symptoms.

Perhaps the most welcome aspect of this drug, though, especially for younger children is that it requires only 30 minutes before it starts working on a system. This provides children with some relieve and help in the early hours of the morning, when they first start waking up and preparing for the school day itself…

Many parents say that the mornings are the most difficult for children with ADD/ADHD. Results of a survey conducted several years ago seem to bear these observations out with some statistics. This survey revealed that out of a total of 16 specific behaviors investigated parents or caregivers reported 12 of them were worse before the start of school.

These behaviors included speaking out of turn, failure to complete tasks, poor concentration, messiness, and interrupting others, to name just a few.

According to some specialists, this quick acting onset also helps children academically at the start of the school day as well.

If you experience any of the following side effects of Focalin XR, consult your physician. The symptoms include: dry mouth, heartburn, stomach pain, headache, difficulty or change in sleeping pattern, loss of appetite, weight loss or nervousness.

Is Focalin xr a good choice for your specific situation and symptoms? Only you and your physician can decide that.

Do you have personal experience with Focalin XR? Please share it below to help other people learn more.

Dr. Kenny

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Focalin: Medication for ADHD

Sold under the name Focalin, dexmethylphenidate is a medication that treats ADD/ADHD.  Most experts believe that this particular drug works because it restores the balance of specific natural substances — called neurotransmitters — in the brain.

If you are currently taking this drug then you know that it helps your ability to pay attention, stay focused on the activity at hand and control certain, perhaps unacceptable behavioral problems.

For some individuals the use of Focalin also helps improve listening skills, stops some individuals with the symptoms of fidgeting from doing so and actually allows many people to improve their organizational ability.

Most physicians instruct their patients to take this medication orally.  It doesn’t matter whether you take it with a meal or not.  And for most individuals, you’ll be taking this twice a day.  More than likely your physician will tell you to take the first dose as soon as you wake up.  Your second dose will be approximately 4 hours later or as instructed by your doctor based on your particular situation.

Of course, many variables go into discovering the most effective dosage for you, but for many individuals that dosage appears to be about 20 mg.

Notice that Focalin is a type of medicine called dexmethylphenidate.  This specific chemical should not be confused with the chemical which is sold as Ritalin, methylphenidate.  Focalin is actually derived from methylphenidate, so they are related. That said, the dosing is quite different and it’s important to remember not to exchange products without the consent and knowledge of your physician.

Usually, the initial dose of Focalin — for those individuals not currently taking methylphenidate — is 5 mg daily.  If you are currently taking methylphenidate, then the initial dosage for this medication is half of your methylphenidate dose.

In either scenario, the total daily dose of Focalin should be divided into two dosages taken at least 4 hours apart.

Don’t be surprised though, if your physician adjusts this dosage as time goes on.  He may actually increase your Focalin by 2.5 mg or even 5 mg until you reach the maximum dosage of 20 mg in a day (taken at two separate times throughout the day).  Adjustments to this medication are usually made on a weekly interval.
In fact, Focalin can be bought in doses of 2.5 mg, 5 mg. and 10 mg.  It goes to work quickly in your system — within 30 to 60 minutes.  Many individuals prefer to use this in the evening, once the day long-acting version of their ADD/ADHD medication has already tapered off.

Side Effects of Focalin

The most common side effects of this ADD/ADHD medication include, stomach pain (some 15 percent of individuals on this medication complained of this), nausea (found to bother about nine percent of those taking it), loss of appetite (which affected only six percent of individuals) and insomnia.

This specific medication has also been known to cause a temporary slowing of growth in children who use it (in approximately 2-3% of children).  The difference in growth is very small and given time, children usually catch up to their peers within normal time limits.

Talk with your physician if you believe Focalin may be able to help your ADD/ADHD symptoms.

Please share any thoughts, comments or experiences below.

Dr. Kenny

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Concerta: The First Long Acting ADHD Medicine

As ADD/ADHD medications go, Concerta is a relatively new drug.  But in the short time it’s been available, it seems to be an extremely popular choice. Concerta contains the same active ingredient that Ritalin has, the stimulant methylphenidate.

The advantage of this drug over many of the others is that you — or your child — only need to take it once a day.  In fact, when it was introduced to the pubic, it was the only time-released formula available.  And now you can see why it gained popularity so very quickly

One single tablet provides up to 12-hour coverage. But more importantly, in the eyes of those who created it, Concerta provides an evenly dispersed amount of coverage.  When children take Ritalin several times throughout the day, they’ll experience the normal peaks and valleys that naturally come with the rising and falling of the medication in their bloodstream.

Concerta may be prescribed in four distinct dosing levels.  Your physician may start you or your child out on the smallest dose, 18 mg.   The other three dosages are:  27 mg, 36 mg and 54 mg.

And it’s this single use ease of the pill that sets it up as being unique from other ADD/ADHD medications when it was first released. Now there are other once daily ADHD medications as well. But it’s also this delayed release mechanism that may cause concerns for some people taking it.

Quickly let’s look at what the difference involved in taking 20 mg of Ritalin three times a day, to taking a 54 mg single pill of Concerta once a day.  When looking at Concerta doses, it’s important to know that 22% of the medicine is released immediately, and the rest of the pill supports that dose. That means that the 54 mg dose of concerta is like taking regular Ritalin 12 mg three times per day. This is obviously quite lower than Ritalin 20 mg per day. This is why it is important that your doctor get the dose right when using Concerta.

Side Effects of Concerta

Of course, Concerta like any other prescription medication administered for any disorder or disease, is not free from adverse side effects.  According to the medical community, the side effects of Concerta are less pronounced than some of the ones that accompany the use of the older medications.  Some people not only complain of physical side effects, like abdominal pain, dizziness, and headaches.  But some of the known effects of Concerta also include an increased feeling of aggravation, nervousness and even a pronounced hostility.

Others have reported, as a consequence of taking this drug, inability to sleep, loss of appetite, as coughing and the presence of sinusitis.  Other side effects may include vomiting, allergic reactions as well as increased level of blood pressure.

Some individuals have even complained of experiencing symptoms most closely associated with psychosis, such as abnormal thinking or hallucinations.  If when you’re taking this medication, you experience any of these side effects, let your doctor know immediately.

Concerta can be a real hope for many people — especially children — who only want to take one pill a day.  For many students, this single tablet alleviates the need to visit the school nurse at noon.  And that can mean so much in the way of self esteem.

Not taking it now, but think it might be right for you?  Check with your doctor.  He’ll be able to provide specific recommendations for your personal situation.

Please share any of your comments or experiences below.


Dr. Kenny

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Ritalin – Still a Viable Option

Although there are many newer medicines available for ADHD, Ritalin is still prescribed regularly, and it often gets a lot of media attention.

As a parent — or an adult — with attention deficit disorder you’re doing the smart thing by researching the medication you’re taking for your condition. I’m a firm believer that knowledge is power. And the more you understand the mechanisms by which Ritalin and other medications work, then in the long run, you’re far more likely to control your ADD/ADHD than have it control you.

It seems ironic, doesn’t it? That many individuals with ADD/ADHD whose symptoms include hyperactivity would be given medication classed as a stimulant to help calm them. Ritalin is just one class of stimulant drug providing relief for you and hundreds of thousands of others.

Ritalin is also known by its chemical name of methylphenidate. Ritalin is the trade or brand name under which it’s sold. With only a four hour duration, you’ll discover that the individual with ADD/ADHD will need to take this prescription drug in the morning, at noontime as well as a dose at roughly 4 p.m.

These three separate doses provide you with coverage for a 12-hour period. That’s a good portion of a functioning day in anyone’s book. And it gives the individual just about the maximum coverage for the day.

While Ritalin may be short acting, your personal care physician may want to eventually combine it with another drug to help extend its effectiveness. He may prescribe Ritalin as well as a longer-acting methylphenidate preparation. Perhaps he believes your Ritalin isn’t working as effectively as it should.

He may request that you also try using Concerta in the morning with your Ritalin. Your dosage may look something like this then. In the morning, you take Ritalin and a specific dose of Concerta. This dosage is created solely for your specific situation. He may also ask that you take this second form of stimulant at the second dosage.

Many individuals have a medication schedule that include both Ritalin and Concerta in the morning and the afternoon (or at either time period) to help length the effects of this medication. Usually then they take Ritalin only in the evening.

Difference Between Ritalin And Ritalin SR

There is another, second variety of Ritalin available as well. It’s called Ritalin SR. the SR stands for slow release. It’s the same formula as the original, except in the slow release form, the medication is placed in a waxy substance to allow it to release in a steadier, more gradual rate.

This medication isn’t side effect free however. While your son or daughter is taking it you may notice some these more common adverse side effects. Among the most common of these are insomnia and decreased appetite. And do let your physician know if you or your child is experiencing either of these. The two common effects can easily be managed through the careful timing and dosing of the medication itself.

Some individuals get a skin rash, fever, headaches, anorexia nervosa, drowsiness, nausea, abdominal pain and dizziness. If you experience any of these conditions while you’re using Ritalin, be sure to notify your health care professional

Ritalin was the first prescription to be given for the treatment of ADD/ADHD and it was first used in 1958. To this day it’s still the medication most widely associated with the disorder.

While many people have a ‘knee-jerk’ negative reaction to Ritalin, it may still play a role in a reasonable treatment plan for ADHD.

Please share your thoughts below.

Dr. Kenny

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The Dollars and Cents of ADHD

A press release just came out today – publicizing a report which is available for purchase about the nature of the pharmaceutical market in ADHD. The press release documents that the ADHD market is worth $3.85 billion per year, and will have a compound annual growth rate of 1.2% over the next 10 years. They document that the adult ADHD ‘market’ is largely untapped, and they predict that it will likely be twice as big as the pediatric ADHD market.

I have to say that I always have a mixed response when I read statistics like this.

On the negative side – this type of data makes it seems that the pharmaceutical companies are just trying to make sure that more prescriptions are written, and they see people with ADHD as just consumers of their drug and ‘dollars and cents’. Additionally, these data help to fuel the ‘ADHD nay-sayers’ to talk about how ‘over treated’ and ‘over medicated’ ADHD is. (I can hear them saying – ‘almost $4 billion dollars of drugs sold per year???’).

On the other side – this type of just report documents facts…
It’s been documented that it costs over $1 billion USD to bring a new medicine to market. The fact that there is a profit in the ADHD market – and an opportunity for companies to expand sales in the future – means that there will be more research and thus more new treatments introduced in the coming years.

This is ultimately good for people with ADD or ADHD.
New treatment options coming out in the future is a good thing…

In summary – although this type of statistic can be shocking to some – I believe it is important to know that it means that the pharma companies will be willing to invest new monies into ADHD research and treatments.

The danger here is how this statistic can be sensationalized, and how people can get too fixed on the ‘medication only’ treatment of ADHD.

Please remember that the best approach to treatment of ADHD is multimodal – meaning including medication with non-medication approaches (including behavioral therapy, parenting supports, academic/occupational support, coaching, alternative approaches, etc.).

To read a special report that I wrote about ADHD Medication, please visit: Medication Mastery.

Please share your thoughts in the comments section below.

Dr. Kenny

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